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Ash is a tough, dense, and elastic hardwood species that is found worldwide with a light cream to light brown color.  It is extensively used for tool handles, baseball bats, and other uses requiring a high strength and durability.  Ash was used as a structural member for car and carriage frames.  This species has similar grain characteristics to oaks, with its open pores and cathedral patterns, and is often used as an oak substitute given its price point.  While it machines and finishes well, care must be taken to prevent tear out and silica content lends itself to a slight blunting effect on tools.  Ash has a Janka hardness of 1320 and weighs 3.5 pounds per board foot.

Thermally modified ash shares all the same characteristics of the original species but has been heated to 400 degrees in a vacuum kiln to further reduce its moisture content.  Thermo ash trades a bit of its elasticity when it goes through this process but gains a high level of durability with regards to rot and darkens to a beautiful brown color.  This form is an excellent replacement for more traditional and expensive decking materials and is a chemical free process.

4/4 refers to lumber that was cut at 1 inch thickness
15/16ths has been skip planed (a majority of the surfacing work has been done, there may be a few spots that are still rough, but the grain of the particular piece of wood should be visible)
13/16ths is commonly called finish planed.  This should be ready for sanding and finish
Ripped 1 Edge is lumber that has been run through a straight-line rip saw.  This allows for easy squaring on a table saw.
Sanded refers to a select few lumber options that have been run through a belt sander and are 100% finish ready.
5/4 lumber was sawn at 1.25 inches in thickness.

6/4 lumber was sawn at 1.5 inches in thickness.

8/4 lumber was sawn at 2 inches in thickness.

10/4 lumber was sawn at 2.5 inches in thickness.

12/4 lumber was sawn at 3 inches in thickness.